Follow by Email

Morocco - Sardine capital of the world.

Morocco - Sardine capital of the world.

The word sardine is an imprecise term referring to any number of small, silvery saltwater fish related to the herring and found throughout the world. Fish labeled as "sardines" include sprats, brisling and pilchards.

Frequently caught off the Mediterranean coast and eaten in abundance in Spain, Greece, Portugal, Italy and Morocco, you can also find sardines from the Atlantic, the Pacific, the East Coast of South Africa and beyond.

Sardines tend to travel in large schools close to the water's surface and are harvested fresh in the summer. The name sardine may be a reference to the Sardinian coast, where pilchards were one of the first fish to be packed in oil.

Here's something you probably didn't know about Morocco. Morocco is the world's largest exporter of sardines. And now the little fish is about to make further contributions to the economy as Morocco replaces Venezuela as main supplier of sardines to Brazil.

Morocco became the main supplier of sardines to Brazil in the first two months of the year, taking over the market share left by Venezuela, which has stopped exporting the fish. Brazil had purchased 8,500 tonnes of the Moroccan fish up to February.

"Morocco tends to benefit as, behind Venezuela, it is the country that most exports sardines to Brazil," stated Luiz Eduardo Carvalho Bonilha, general coordinator of Industrial Fishery of the Special Secretariat of Aquiculture and Fishery (Seap), a federal government organization. Venezuela, according to Bonilha, is turning its fishery to the foreign market, as the country has reduced sardine fishing to protect its shoals.

Venezuela supplied 31,800 tonnes of sardine to Brazil in 2005, according to figures supplied by the Foreign Trade Secretariat (Secex). The figures include frozen and pickled sardines. The volume supplied by the South American country represented 94.6% of the total imported by Brazil in the period. According to Bonilha, the full volume may be supplied by Morocco and also by the United States and Russia. "But Morocco is the country, outside South America, that stands out most in our exports," he said.

Around one month ago sardine import tariffs were reduced to zero. Before that, the tariff for import of the product from countries like Morocco was 2%, but the government decided to bring benefits to other nations that export the product, giving them the same advantages as Venezuela, as a South American country, had. To supply the domestic demand in Brazil, the tariff will remain zeroed not only during the period in which sardine fishing is prohibited in the country, due to reproduction and growth of the fish, but also throughout the year.

Up to last year, however, sales of the Moroccan product to Brazil were not so impressive. Morocco shipped 962 tonnes to the country, which represented 2.8% of the total imported. Even so, Morocco was the second foreign supplier of sector products in the sector. Exports generated revenues of US$ 572,000 to the Moroccans.

This year, just in the first two months, Moroccan sardine sales to Brazil reached US$ 4.7 million. The country has become the largest supplier of the product to Brazil. The domestic market imported a total of US$ 5.6 million in sardines, canned and frozen, between January and February. In terms of volume, Morocco answered for 83.3% of Brazilian imports, which totalled 10,200 tons.

Morocco has a rich cultural and civilizational heritage

Morocco has a rich cultural and civilizational heritage and diverse.

 Each region has its peculiarities, thus contributing to national culture and civilizational heritage. Among the priority obligations include the protection of heritage in all its forms and the preservation of historical monuments.

Since Morocco's independence, many changes have occurred socio-cultural, as part of the logic of inevitable changes experienced by most countries during the second half of the twentieth century. This is taking into account the new conditions that are organizing the arts for decades.

Recognizing the importance of culture on individual and group plans, the Moroccan government has decided to devote 1% of local budgets for construction, in each prefecture or province, of a cultural complex includes a theater and sponsorship of artists.

He also advocated the creation in each region, two theater companies that take care of Local Authorities by providing them with appropriate means. In the cultural sphere, Morocco has two important institutions:

- Higher Institute of Archaeology, established in 1986;
- National Institute of Dramatic Art and Cultural Activities, created in 1987.

Morocco also has fifteen museums under the Ministry of Cultural Affairs. These institutions are of three kinds:

archaeological museums

ethnographic museums

specialized museums

The collections in these museums trace the history and evolution of customs, habits and Moroccan traditions through time. Most of these museums are housed in former palaces or homes. By the splendor of their spaces, exceptional collections they house and the singularity of some of their objects, these museums worth visiting:

Archaeological museums

- The Archaeological Museum in Larache

It was inaugurated in 1973, in Borj constructed by Sultan Yusuf Ben Merinid Abdelhaq (1231-1253). The museum is dedicated to discoveries unearthed mainly in Lixus site. The pieces presented back to the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Mauritanian, Roman and Islamic.

Archaeological Museum of Larache
Tel. : (212) (9) 91-20-92

- The Archaeological Museum of Rabat:

Created in the 30s, this museum houses the archaeological finds unearthed in the various excavated sites at the time, including those of Volubilis, Banassa, Thamusida. Its mission is to present, through the remains contained in it, the history of Morocco from prehistory to the Islamic era: tools of prehistoric humans in neolithic furniture, Libyan-Berber inscriptions in the splendid collection of Roman gods, of statuary in bronze or marble to ceramics of the first cities of the Islamic era. A variety of objects, tools find a place such as bronze busts of Juba II, of Cato, as well as masterpieces of the statues of the youth crowned, the old fisherman's dog, morning glory. . .

Archaeological Museum:
23, rue Brihi-Rabat
Tel. : (212) (7) 70-19-19

- The Museum Kasbah in Tangier:

The museum was established in 1920 in a palace rebuilt by Pasha If Ali Ben Abdellah El Rifi in the eighteenth century on the ruins of an ancient citadel. The museum has two sections:
An archaeological museum where we discover various aspects of pre-Islamic Morocco and from the prehistoric Paleolithic to the Roman period of Tingitana.

An ethnographic museum that demonstrates the rich aspects of ethnography Moroccan tapestry, pottery, ceramics, wood, jewelry and ...

El Kasba Kasba museum Sahat Tangier
Tel. : (212) (9) 91-20-92

- The Archaeological Museum in Tetouan:

This museum was created in 1939. It houses collections of prehistoric and archaeological discoveries in pre-Islamic sites in northern Morocco. Among others there are the reconstitution of the Henge of M'zoura, and a fine collection of mosaics and Moroccan currency.

Archaeological Museum in Tetouan
2, Rue Ben Hssain, Tetouan
Tel. : (21) (9) 96-73-03

Ethnographic museums

- The Ethnographic Museum of Chefchaouen

Inaugurated in 1985, this museum occupies the entire port area of ​​Kasba, built in 1471 by Moulay Rachid Ben Ali, founder of the principality of Banu Rashid Chefchaouen. Sumptuous, this Kasba combines the beautiful Andalusian style garden with beautiful red crenellated walls. At this beautiful site is added that the museum's collection that has the merit to highlight: musical instruments, weapons, embroidery, wooden chests, pottery ... characteristics of folk art Chefchaouni, in particular, and northern Morocco in general.

Museum of Chefchaouen
Kasbah, Chefchaouen Outa Hammam
Tel. : (212) (9) 98-67-61

- The Museum Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah in Essaouira:

This museum was founded in 1980. It is located in an old house in the nineteenth century. It houses collections of ethnographic nature of the city and its regional cultural area. Thus there are musical instruments, jewelry, weapons, and marquetry are considered specific to the city of Essaouira and its region.

Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah Museum
Derb Laalouj-Essaouira
Tel. : (212) (4) 47-23-00

- Batha Museum in Fez:

The Batha palace, built during the reign of Moulay Hassan I (1873-1894) and Moulay Abdelaziz (1894-1908), is a museum in 1915. On the Hispano-Moorish architecture, the museum combines the splendor of the premises to the pleasure that comes from the collection it houses. This reflects the richly traditional art from Fez whose richness and variety manifested in carved wood, zellige, wrought iron, sculpted plaster, etc.. Added to this are famous for its ceramics "Fez blue", embroidery, coins, carpets, jewelry and astrolabes ...

Batha Museum:
Ksar el Batha, Fez Medina
Tel. : (212) (5) 63-41-16

- The Dar Si Saïd Museum in Marrakech:

Built in the late nineteenth century by Si Said - brother of Ba Ahmed, grand vizier of Moulay Abdelaziz and Chamberlain of Sultan Moulay Hassan I - to be his remains. Dar Si Said was turned into a museum in 1932. This museum houses a wonderful collection of carpets, doors, chests, arms, clothing, jewelry ... that reflect the thought and skill of the craftsman regions of Upper, the Anti-Atlas regions, presaharic.

Dar Si Said Museum Bahya Derb El-Riad Marrakech Zitoun
Tel. : (212) (4) 44-24-64

- The Dar Jamai Museum in Meknes:

The building dates from 1882 and is named after the Vizier Abu Abdellah Mohammed Jamai, grand vizier of Sultan Moulay Hassan I. On the sumptuous architecture consisting of sets of Zellige, painted wood, carved plaster, a garden-inspired Moroccan-Andalusian, it became a museum in 1920. Since then, it houses a collection of crafts Meknassi, the Middle Atlas and the Pre-Rif. There are represented the different aspects of knowledge of the craftsmen of these areas: wood carving, weaving, embroidery, metalwork, silverware, brassware, leather goods, etc.. In architectural terms, one of the most important elements is the domed hall embellished with Zelliges, carved plaster and painted wood.

Dar Jamai Museum
Place Hadim-Meknes-
Tel. : (212) (5) 53-08-63

- The Ethnographic Museum of Oudaya in Rabat:

It is housed in the old houses built during the reign of Sultan Moulay Ismail (1672-1727) to be his place of his stay in Rabat. Its architecture, its décor, its garden, the building is in itself only a masterpiece. The museum was installed there in 1915. It includes clothing collections representing several regions of the country. The jewelry collection, rich and varied, translated an undeniable expertise of Moroccan craftsmen. Astrolabes testimony to the genius of the school Maghreb and its contribution to the development of science. The rugs, pottery and musical instruments complete the picture of what the museum holds Oudaya as ethnographic collections.

Museum Oudaya
Kasbah Oudaya-Rabat
Tel. : (212) (7) 72-64-61

- The Bab El Oqla Museum in Tetouan:

This museum serving the region, was founded in 1928. Through the presented collections: costumes, furniture, restoration of marriage ceremonies, musical instruments and reflects certain aspects of the arts and traditions of the Rif in general and especially Tetouan.

Museum Bab Oqla:
Bab el Oqla, Tetouan
Tel. : 212-9-97-05-05

Specialized museums

- The Museum of Weapons of Borj Nord in Fez:

This museum specializes in arms was created in 1963 inside the Borj Nord, a stronghold built in 1582 on the orders Saadian Sultan Ahmed El Mansour (1578-1603). It traces the evolution of weapons from prehistoric times until the early 20th century. Thus there are exposed prehistoric weapons ie spikes, tools stalked; axes, knives especially daggers, sabers and swords and firearms such as rifles, guns and pistols.

Museum of Weapons:
Borj Nord-Fez
Tel. : (212) (5) 64-52-41

- The National Museum of Ceramics in Safi

This museum was established in 1990, in kachla (sixteenth century Portuguese fortress). There are beautiful set of ceramic pieces both traditional and modern shapes, colors and methods of rich and varied scenery.

National Museum of Ceramics
Tel. : (212) (4) 46-38-95

- The Regional Museum of Ceramics in Sale:

The Museum of Ceramics in Sale was created in 1994, he held a burj of XVIII century. The present collection is rich and varied, it includes for pottery in the region of Fes, the Rif and Middle Atlas. We also discover some exceptional pieces dating from the Almohad period (twelfth century) such as well curbs.

Regional Museum of Ceramics:
Borj Sidi Ben Achir

- The Contemporary Art Museum in Tangier:

This museum was created in 1990, housed in a prestigious villa of English 1890. It presents masterpieces of a host of contemporary Moroccan artists from different art schools. In parallel, the museum also organizes temporary exhibitions of national and foreign artists.

Museum of Contemporary Art
52 Avenue of England - Tangier
Tel. : (212) (9) 94-99-72


The state organizes every year the price of the book of Morocco and the Great National Award of Merit. Several personalities from the world of Moroccan culture and Moroccan thought were honored with prizes awarded to them both in Morocco and abroad.

Historic City of Meknes

Historic City of Meknes
Founded in the eleventh century by the Almoravids as a military settlement, Meknes became a capital under Sultan Moulay Ismail (1672-1727), founder of the Alawite dynasty. He made an impressive city in Moorish style, surrounded by high walls pierced by monumental gateways that shows today the harmonious blending of Islamic and European styles in the seventeenth century Maghreb.

Brief summary
The historic city of Meknes has exerted considerable influence on the development of civil and military architecture (the Casbah) and structures. Founded in 1061 AD by the Almoravids as a military, it takes its name from the great Berber tribe Meknassa, which dominated the eastern Morocco Tafilalet until the eighth century. It enjoys a remarkably well situated in the plain of Saïss, between the Middle Atlas and Rif mountain of pre-Zerhoun. It contains the remains of the medina which reflect the socio-economic fabric and the former imperial city created by the Sultan Moulay Ismail (1672-1727). It is the presence today of this historic city containing the remains rare and important monuments in the midst of a changing urban space, which gives this city its universal heritage. The two sets are surrounded by a series of walls which dissociate from each other. In addition to its architectural interest of Hispano-Moorish style, Meknes is particularly important because it is the first great work of the Alawite dynasty, reflecting the grandeur of its designer. It also offers a remarkable urban design approach incorporating elements of both the architecture and urbanism of the Islamic and European.
Sheltered by high defensive walls, pierced by nine gates, are of key monuments, of which twenty-five mosques, hammams ten, palaces, vast granaries, the remains of fondouks (hotels merchants) and private homes, testimony periods Almoravid Merinid and Alawite.
Criterion (iv): Meknes is characterized by the appearance of large and gigantic ramparts whose height reaches 15 m. It is considered an exemplary witness of the fortified cities of the Maghreb. This is a good representative of a remarkably complete urban structure and architecture of a North African city of the seventeenth century, seamlessly combining elements of design and planning of Islamic and European. With a princely urban planning, the historic city of Meknes also illustrates the architecture specifics of soil (clay) urban sub-Saharan Maghreb.
Integrity (2009)
The Medina and the Kasbah are two sets fortified by ramparts towering who shall ensure its protection. They contain all the elements that reflect the property's Outstanding Universal Value (fortifications, urban, architecture, land, buildings, military and worship, gardens). The medina is a compact and overcrowded while the Kasbah contains large open areas. The imperial city of Medina stands by its long corridors between high walls of the blind, the dark maze of Dar el-Kbira, the richness of Qasr el-Mhansha, extent of gardens and robustness of the towers and bastions.
Although some key attributes of the city and former imperial capital, reflecting the outstanding universal value are well preserved, others need of conservation measures. In general, urban structure and characteristics of the urban fabric of Meknes became vulnerable as a result of rapid and uncontrolled development in part, as the surrounding buffer zone.
Authenticity (2009)
Meknes attributes that reflect his concern for Outstanding Universal Value of the monuments and all part of the urban fabric of the city that illustrate shape of the seventeenth century. Some buildings have become very vulnerable as a result of inappropriate renovations or reconstructions and the urban fabric is also weakened by the erosion of the details. In general, the ability of many to express its outstanding universal value needs to be strengthened because some attributes are already threatened.
Needs protection and management (2009)
Protection measures are essentially different laws listing of historic monuments and sites, particularly the Law 22-80 (1981) on the Conservation of Moroccan heritage. A management plan to own property is not yet available. Rehabilitation actions undertaken to date, initiated by several speakers, the result of a participatory strategy to safeguard and promote that heritage. In addition, the City Council of the city, aware of its role as a key player in the management of the property, created in 2003 within the municipality, an Historic Monuments Service responsible for overseeing and implementing rehabilitation programs of local heritage, in close collaboration with the Regional Inspectorate of Monuments and Sites (Ministry of Culture).
In order to maintain the cultural identity of the city and promote the property's Outstanding Universal Value, regular programs of urban restructuring is underway. In this connection it is worth quoting the following: the development of architectural charter and management plan of the medina, the application of a study of upgrading (restructuring of the axes and arteries, lanes and alleys, treatment and beautification of the exterior facades, consolidation of traditional masonry and flooring). It is within this framework that are part of the restoration of the walls and gates, the rehabilitation of heritage buildings (bastions, palaces, granaries, silos and fortresses), rehabilitation of historical sites and redevelopment of open spaces.
It is necessary to strengthen the institutional capacity to ensure the conservation and rehabilitation of the attributes of Outstanding Universal Value of Meknes receive the highest attention in the field of planning and decision making.
Long Description

[English only]
The Historic City of Meknes Represents year in full and Exceptionally well-preserved way the urban fabric and monumental buildings of a 17th century Maghreb capital city Combining Elements of Islamic and European design and scheduling in a Harmonious fashion. It Has exerted a considerable impact on the development of civil and military architecture (Kasbah) and works of art. It contains aussi The Remains of the royal city Founded by Sultan Moulay Ismail (1672-1727). The presence of These unusual restes Within a historic town in turn That Is Located Within a Rapidly Changing Urban Environment Gives Meknes icts universal value.
The name goes back to the Meknes Meknassa, the great Berber tribe That Dominated eastern Morocco as far back as the Tafilliet Which Produced and Moulay Idriss I, founder of the Moroccan state and the dynasty in the Idrissid 8th century AD.
The Almoravid rulers (1053-1147) made a practice of building strongholds for Storing food and arms for Their troops; This Was Introduced by Ben Youssef Tachafine, the founder of Marrakesh. Established in Meknes WAS this extended period. The Earliest To Be Settled by WAS Nejjarine Around the Mosque, an Almoravid foundation. Markets congregated around the mosque, Specializing in Firearms, woodwork and metal products. Like Other settlements of the time, Meknes Was Not fortified: walls Were not added Until The End Of The Almoravid extended period.
The Town Fell Into the hands of the Almohad dynasty (1147-1269) at the start of Their rule: it was taken by year army led by the Caliph Abd al-Mu'min in person. DURING this période It Was enlarged and urbanized. An inscription states That the Great Mosque enlarged WAS DURING the reign of Mohamed Annacer. Water from the spring Tagma WAS Brought to the town to serve as the: various fountains, baths and mosques. At That Time There Were oven sets of baths (hammam), the location of data and identify how the town Which HAD spread.
During The Subsequent Merinid période (1269-1374), Meknes Absorbed the suburbs That HAD grown up round it. Refugees from the centers in Andalusia Moorish That Fell to Christian forces, aussi Helped to swell the population, Among Them a significant Jewish community. FOLLOWING Merinid practice, Abu Yusuf built a Kasbah (the only mosque of Which Survives) outside the old town, as well as the first of the Three madrassas (Islamic schools) with the Merinid Which rulers endowed Meknes. Other public buildings from the Merinid période included mosques, Hospitals, libraries and fountains.
The founder of the Alawite dynasty, Moulay Ismail (1672-1727), made Meknes historical capital city and Carried Out Many reconstructions and additions, Such as mosques, mausolea and gardens, historical goal contribution hand Was The establishment of a new imperial city. Built in the Hispano-Moorish style, it is impressive in Both extents and construction. It is enclosed by high walls pierced by monumental gates. Within the palace are icts with Enormous stable, a military academy, vast water storage cisterns and granaries.
The high defensive walls of Meknes are pierced by the monumental gates: Bab Mansour Laalej, Lakhmis Bab, Bab Berdain, Bab Jdid, etc.. Within There are Many religious buildings, Especially from The Many mosques and the madrassas successive Periods. Some of the fondouks (inns) That cluster around the gates Were Devoted To Specific crafts or trades: for example, the Fondouk Hanna dealt Solely in henna, while the Jewish craftsmen Worked at the Fondouk Lihoudi. Were some quarters reserved for Specific trades and activities
Source: UNESCO / CLT / WHC
Historical description

The name dates back to Meknes Meknassa illustrates Berber tribe that dominated the eastern Morocco to Tafilalet and received Moulay Idriss I, founder of the Moroccan state and Idrisid dynasty in the 8th century after Jesus Christ.
Leaders Almoravids (1053-1147) had to practice to build a stronghold for the storage of weapons and food for their troops. This practice was introduced by Youssef Ben Tachfine, the founder of Marrakech. Established at the time, Meknes is named Tagrart (Garrison). The oldest part is around the mosque Nejjarine, Almoravid foundation. Markets dealing in firearms, marquetry, metal products, etc.., Form around the mosque. Like other institutions of that time, Meknes is not fortified, the walls will be added at the end of the Almoravid period.
The city fell to the Almohad dynasty (1147-1269) at the beginning of their reign: it is taken by an army led by Caliph Abd el Moumen in person. During this period, the city has grown and urbanized. An inscription shows that the expansion of the Great Mosque dates from the reign of Mohamed Nasser (1199-1213). The water sources of Tagma is made until the city to serve the various fountains, baths and mosques. At that time, there are four kinds of baths (hammam) whose location reflects the expansion of the city.
Then, at the time Merinid (1269-1374), Meknes absorbs suburbs that have grown around it. Refugee centers of Moorish Andalusia fell into the hands of Christians are also joining the ranks of the population of Meknes, among them a large Jewish community. Accordance with the practices of Merinids Abu Youssef (1269-1286) had built a Kasbah (which only the mosque remains) outside the old town and the first of three madrassas (Koranic schools) whose leaders will equip mérinides Meknes .

Medina of Essaouira (formerly Mogador)

Medina of Essaouira (formerly Mogador)

Essaouira is an exceptional example of a fortified town of the late eighteenth century, built in North Africa according to the principles of European military architecture of the time. Since its founding, it has remained an international trading port of the first, linking Morocco and its Saharan hinterland with Europe and the world.

Brief summary
The Medina of Essaouira, formerly known as Mogador (name from the Phoenician word Migdol, meaning "fortress"), is an outstanding example of a fortified city from the mid-eighteenth century, surrounded by a wall of Vauban style. Built in North Africa according to the principles of European military architecture of the time, in perfect combination with the precepts of architecture and urbanism Arab-Muslim, she played for centuries, the role of harbor of major international trading, linking Morocco and sub-Saharan Africa to Europe and the world. The city also offers an example of a multicultural center as shown in coexistence, from his conception of various ethnic groups such as the Amazigh, Arabs, Africans and Europeans and multi-faith (Muslims, Christians and Jews). Inseparable from the medina, the islands of Mogador has a large number of cultural and natural sites of outstanding universal value. Its founding relatively late compared to other medinas of North Africa was the work of Sultan Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdallah Alawi (1757-1790) who wanted to make this small town Atlantic port and a royal capital of the Moroccan trade with the outside. Long known as the Port of Tombouctou, Essaouira became one of the cornerstones of the Atlantic slave trade between Africa and Europe in the late eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century.
Criterion (ii): Essaouira is an outstanding example, well-preserved walled port city of mid-eighteenth century European high inspiration, transposed into a North African context.
Criterion (iv): With the opening of Morocco on the world in the late seventeenth century, the Medina of Essaouira was designed by a French architect deeply influenced by the work of the military engineer Vauban at Saint-Malo . It has largely retained the appearance of a European city.
Integrity (2009)
Completed in the nineteenth century and clearly defined by its walls, the Medina of Essaouira has all the elements essential to its integrity. Forming a homogeneous combination of natural assets (islands of Mogador) and cultural goods of high quality, the city still retains its integrity and original character. Although its integrity has been somewhat altered, in particular due to the degradation of buildings in the Mellah, the degree of loss does not compromise the significance of the property as a whole.
The conservation status of the Medina of Essaouira continues to improve through the efforts of local authorities and vigilance services directly involved in its protection and enhancement.
Authenticity (2009)
Founded in the mid-eighteenth century, the Medina of Essaouira has largely retained its authenticity in terms of both design and forms at the level of materials (use of local stone called manjour) and construction methods and that despite some inappropriate uses of modern materials for repairs and reconstructions. Despite the wave action on the sea side and humidity elsewhere, the urban fortifications and maintain, in all their original configuration.
Needs protection and management (2009)
Protection measures are essentially different laws listing of historic monuments and sites, particularly the law relating to 22-80 Moroccan heritage. Property of the elements constituting the historic town of Essaouira is divided between the State, municipality, Endowments, the Alliance Israelite, cooperatives and individuals. The Master Plan No. 4001 of 1988 provides around the historic city a buffer zone where construction is prohibited. Two measures of protection and management are significant inputs in the final stages of application. This is the blueprint for urban development in the city of Essaouira and the backup plan of the medina.
Local people, governments and the associative space are increasingly sensitive to the outstanding universal value of the medina. The Urban Agency of Essaouira was created to ensure better control of the urbanization of the city in general and in particular the medina. This should allow, in parallel with other ministerial departments, to plan and coordinate efforts and monitor the progress and implementation of projects initiated or planned. Pending the establishment of a management plan of the medina which is expected to reconcile the conservation of architectural heritage and the improvement of living conditions of local people, the services involved in the protection and preservation of the property must ensure the implementation of the development plan of the medina and the entire city of Essaouira.
Long Description

[English only]
Essaouira year is outstanding and well-preserved example of a late 18th-century European fortified seaport town translated to a North African context. With the opening up of Morocco to the rest of the world in the later 17th century, the town WAS ugly out by a French architect Who Influenced profoundly HAD beens by the work of Vauban at Saint-Malo. It Has Retained icts European appearance to a substantial businesses extent.
Icts since foundation in the 18th century and Until the Beginning of the 20th century, Essaouira HAS Fundamental Role Played a year as international trading harbor Between Morocco and the rest of the world. A number of consular and traders from different Countries Were Established there. Essaouira is a leading example of building inspired by European architecture, a town only by Virtue of ict design: it was created in conformité with a predetermined plan, the plan Cornut. Since The Beginning, the medina of Essaouira has-been a major place for the peaceable coming together of the architectural and town-planning models of Europe and of Morocco for itself. In this way a symbiosis WAS Achieved Between technical building from Morocco and Elsewhere That Gave birth to unique architectural masterpieces Some: the Sqalas of the harbor and of the medina, the Bab Marrakech bastion, the Water Gate, mosques, synagogues, churches, etc..
Archaeological excavations Have Shown That the site of Essaouira WAS Originally a Phoenician trading settlement, Followed by Cretans, Greeks and Romans. Earlier the name of Mogador derived from Migdol, meaning-a small box. In 1506 It Was to Become the site of a Portuguese fortress, this goal WAS abandoned soon after.
The present town dates from 1765, When the Alawite Sultan Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah Decided to build a harbor That Would open Morocco up to the outside world and assist in Developing trade relationships with Europe. He Sought the help of Nicholas Theodore Cornut, a specialist in military fortifications surveyor from Avignon, Influenced by Who Was Strongly Vauban's Defences at Saint-Malo. He Partially dismantled the Portuguese fortress to build year esplanade with a row of cannons. The Entire town WAS enclosed by a defensive wall on the Vauban model. In order to control maritime trade, the southern coast ET closed to European traders, obliging the European consuls at Safi, Agadir and Rabat to move to Mogador, where 'all southern mercantile activities Were concentrated. The new port Became one of the country's main shopping centers; It Was Called the 'port of Timbuktu' As It Was the destination of caravans Bringing a Variety of products (Including Slavic) from black Africa. The Town Was Made up of Three Separate districts. The old kasbah comprised the administrative district. The medina WAS crossed by Two hand axial streets, one running from Bab Doukalla to the harbor and the Other from Bab Marrakesh to the sea. There Were At Their intersection oven Markets, for fish, spices, grain and general goods respectively.
The Mellah is the Jewish quarter; it Played a very significant role in the history of the town, as the Sultan made use of this community to ESTABLISH relationships with Europe and to organizes business activities with 'em. The main features of the town are: the ramparts, most is of the northern section of Which Survives; the town gates, ornamental Especially the Sea Gate (1170-1171), the bastions and forts (borjs), Especially the Sqala of the Port and the Sqala of the Medina and the Bastion of Bab Marrakesh, the kasbah, Which was Originally the seat of power and the military garrison, and is now integrated Into the town proper, the Mellah (Jewish quarter), Which Retains Many Of icts original special features; the prison, Located on the offshore island (now a haven for unusual birds, Such as hawks); The Many mosques, in a characteristic style, and Especially the mosques of the Casbah and Ben Yosef, the synagogues (In Particular the 19th -century synagogue of Simon Attias) Which preserve the dynamism of the Jewish Inhabitants; the late 18th-century Portuguese church, the Dar-Sultan (old Royal Palace) and the very attractive private houses.
Source: UNESCO / CLT / WHC
Historical description
la ville d'Essaouira
Archaeological excavations have revealed that the site of Essaouira was originally a Phoenician. Then came the Cretans, Greeks and Romans. Mogador, its old name, comes from the Phoenician word Migdol, meaning "fortress". In 1506 the city had become the seat of a Portuguese fortress but was abandoned shortly after.
The present city dates from 1765, years during which the Alawite Sultan Sidi Mohamed ben Abdallah decided to build a port in Morocco intended to provide an opening to the outside world while allowing the development of trade relations with Europe. He then requested the assistance of Theodore Cornut, engineer of military fortifications of Avignon who was strongly influenced by the fortifications of Vauban at Saint-Malo. It partially dismantles the Portuguese fortress in order to build the Scala, esplanade with a row of cannons. He organized the city checkerboard, with strong follow those of Roussillon, in the European tradition. The entire city was enclosed by a wall of Vauban style.
During the reign of Sidi Mohamed ben Abdallah, Mogador plays a significant commercial and tax. To control maritime trade, the Sultan farm south coast to European traders, forcing the European consulates in Safi, Agadir and Rabat to settle in Mogador, instead of concentration of all market activities in the south. The new port became one of the major ports and, to be the destination for caravans bringing African black a variety of loads (including slaves), it is called "port of Timbuktu".
The city is divided into three neighborhoods. Kasbah includes the old administrative district. Medina is built between the eighteenth century and early twentieth century. It is crossed by two main lines, one connecting Bab Doukkala port and the other starting from Bab Marrakech to reach the sea at their intersection, or Souk Jdid, are then installed four markets respectively devoted to fish, spices, grain and groceries. Each district is named after the tribes involved in building the city.
The Mellah Jewish quarter, played an important role in the history of the city because the Sultan used the Jewish community to build relationships with Europe and organize business activities. Jews were honored as Toujjar Es-Sultan (Merchant Royal), which conferred upon them of considerable economic and political privileges.

Medina of Marrakesh

Founded in 1070-1072 by the Almoravids (1056-1147), Marrakech was long a center of political, economic and cultural event of the Muslim West, ruling over North Africa and Andalusia. Of monuments dating from this period: the Koutoubiya Mosque, the Kasbah, the battlements, monumental doors, gardens, etc.. Later, the city will host other wonders, like the palace Bandia, the Ben Youssef Madrasa the Saadian Tombs, several great residences, etc.. Jemaa El Fna, a veritable open-air theater, always amazes visitors.
Other languages:
English French Spanish Arabic Chinese Russian

Outstanding universal value

Brief summary
Founded in 1070-1072 by the Almoravids (1056-1147), capital of the Almohads (1147-1269), Marrakech was long a center of political, economic and cultural event of the Muslim West, ruling over North Africa and the Andalusia. Of monuments dating from this period: the Koutoubia Mosque whose incomparable 77-meter minaret, monument critical of Muslim architecture, is one of the great landmarks of the urban landscape and the very symbol of the city, the Casbah , ramparts, gates, and gardens. Later, the city will host other wonders, like the palace Badiâ, the Ben Youssef Madrasa, the Saadian Tombs, the Bahia palace, and mansions. Jemaa El Fna square, inscribed on the Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage, is a veritable open-air theater which always amazes visitors. With its original design still preserved, its construction materials and decoration perpetually used and its natural environment (including the Gardens of Aguedal, the Menara and planting palm grove which is attributed to Almoravids) still protected, the Medina of Marrakesh has all its original components both cultural and natural giving it an outstanding universal value.

Criterion (i): Marrakech has an impressive number of masterpieces of architecture and art (ramparts and gates, Koutoubia Mosque, Saadian tombs, palace ruins Badiâ, Bahia Palace, pool and pavilion of Menara) each of which could justify, by itself, a recognition of outstanding universal value.
Criterion (ii): The capital of the Almoravids and Almohads played a decisive role in the development of medieval urban planning. The capital of Merinids Fez Jadid (New), part of the medina of Fez, inscribed in 1981 on the World Heritage List, is an adaptation of previous city of Marrakech.
Criterion (iv): Marrakech, which gave its name to the empire of Morocco, is the perfect example of a major Islamic capital of the western Mediterranean.
Criterion (v): In the 700 hectares of the Medina, old housing, become vulnerable due to demographic change, represents, with its maze of narrow streets, its houses, its souks, its fondouks, his craft and commercial activities traditional, an outstanding example of living historic town.

Integrity (2009)
The delimitation of the property inscribed on the World Heritage List is properly defined by its original walls that contain all the attributes architectural and planning required for the expression of its outstanding universal value. A review of these limits is intended to better protect the environment of the property.
Integrity is nevertheless rendered vulnerable due to urban development pressures, uncontrolled alterations made to the elevations and building materials for houses, abandonment of khettaras (underground drainage) and the use of palm .

Authenticity (2009)
The ramparts, the Koutoubia Mosque, the Kasbah, the Saadian tombs, the ruined palace Badiâ, the pelvis and the Menara pavilion are examples of the many monuments that clearly reflect the property's Outstanding Universal Value. The authenticity of the urban structure internally and monuments has remained intact. It is provided by a skilled workforce performing restorations according to current standards. Reconstructions and rearrangements that occur within the historical center volume and generally respect the original style. The use of traditional materials in these restoration operations has greatly revived the craft trades related to construction (Zellige, coating tadallakt, carved and painted wood, plaster, metalwork, woodwork, etc..) In addition to business related furnishings and decoration.

Measures required for the protection and management (2009)
Protection measures are essentially different laws listing of historic monuments and sites, particularly Law 22-80 relating to the property. In addition to this legislation, each of the most important monuments of the Medina of Marrakech is protected by specific regulations. In addition to local services who act for the protection of the medina, the Regional Inspectorate of Historic Monuments and Sites (under the Ministry of Culture) with special responsibility for the management, restoration, maintenance and conservation of historic buildings on the one hand, and the other examining the applications for the construction and development and control of projects within the medina, is a guarantee for lasting protection of the site .
The Charter of the architectural Medina, developed by the Urban Agency of Marrakech in consultation with the Regional Inspectorate of Monuments and Sites, is a management tool that aims to safeguard the architectural, urban and landscape of the medina , by the introduction of a specific structure. An agreement for the implementation of this charter was signed November 11, 2008 between the partners involved.
Long Description

[English only]
The capital of the Almoravids Almohads and the decisive role has Played in the development of medieval planning. Marrakesh (Which Gave icts name to the Moroccan Empire) is the textbook example of a broader Islamic capital in the Western world. With maze of narrow streets icts, houses, souks (markets), traditional crafts and trade activities, and Its medina, this ancient settlement is outstanding example of a year vibrant historic city.
Marrakesh WAS Founded in 1071-72 by Youssef bin Tachfin on the site of the camp Where Abu Bakr HAD HIM left in charge. That from the point forward, no longer WAS Marrakesh year occasional stopping place for the Almoravids. It Became the true capital of These Conquering Nomads Who succeeded in Their empire stretching from the Sahara to the Ebro and from the Atlantic to Kabylia.
The original layout of the medina dates back to the Almoravid période from Which There still REMAIN: various monumental remains (ruins of the So-Called Abu Bakr Kasbah ben Youssef Mosque and Tachfin Ali ben Youssef Palace, not far from the Koutoubia, the pool and the 'Kubba' of Ali ben Youssef Mosque Which Were discovered in 1955, Bab Aylan gate, etc..). It is a year in fuel adaptation of the older urban model of Marrakesh.
The walls of the medina Were built in 1126-1127 FOLLOWING the order Given by Ali ibn Yusuf. The planting of the palm groves, Which still present at the surface of a cover area of ​​13.000 ha Roughly to the east of the city, HAS aussi beens Credited to the Almoravids. When in 1147 this dynasty bowed to the attacks of the Almohads led by Abdel Mou'men, the task of purification That Was Carried out fired, return not spare the monuments Which, for the MOST part, Were Destroyed by the victors. Nevertheless Marrakesh Remained the capital. Under the Almohad rulers (1147-1269), Marrakesh and New Experienced Unprecedented prosperity.
Between 1147 and 1158, Abd el Mou'men Had the Koutoubia Mosque built upon the ruins of the Almoravid foundations. Its unique minaret, key monument of Muslim architecture, is one of the major features of the cityscape and is the actual symbol of the city. The ruler's Successors, and Especially Abou Yacoub Youssef Yacoub el Mansour, Who Were the ones truly renovated the capital. THEY built new quarters, extended the city wall, fortified the Kasbah (1185-1190) Which was a prolongation of the city to the south with Its Own ramparts and gates (Bab Agnaou, Bab Robb), ict mosque, palace, market, hospital parade-ground and gardens. These leaders Strengthened Their Control over Their domains by planting crops (Menara to the west) and by civil engineering Achievements, the best of Which Are The Known Tensift Bridge and the kettara network in the palm groves.
The decline of Marrakesh, Which Began During The conquest of the city by the Merinids in 1269, Never Went Beyond the point of no return, as is illustrated by a number of non-negligible constructions (Ben Salih Mosque and minaret, not Long After 1321 ). The rebirth of the capital from under the Saadian rulers (1510-1669) led to a new blossoming of the arts, have bound out by the ruins of the El Badi Palace and the Saadian tombs, Whose precious architecture is isolated from the rest of the Kasbah by a wall. Some of the Elements making up thesis refined and sumptuous buildings cam from afar, Such as the marble columns from Carrara Which Montaigne Being Observed in Tuscany cut 'for the king of Morocco in Berberia'. Also dating back to the Saadian période is the restoration of the Ben Youssef Madrasa and the building of Several fountains decorated with gypsum work and woodwork (Mouassine, or Chrob Chouf and Bab Doukkala Fountains).
Under the reign of the Alawite dynasty, Marrakesh, the temporary capital, graced with a new WAS mosque, madrasas, palaces and residences harmoniously integrated Into the homogeneous unit of the old town, Which was Surrounded by 10 km of clay and lime-beaten and cob ramparts. Beyond the Walls Were the great traditional Areas of greenery: the palm groves, and the Menara, to the south, the Agdal Gardens That Were Redesigned by Moulay Abd er Rahman